Fly Control Principles - Cultural Methods
The cultural control of flies is defined as the manipulation, insofar as is possible, of abiotic factors (environmental conditions such as temperature, moisture of breeding habitat and humidity) that suppress fly numbers.
Removing manure frequently and thoroughly, or keeping it dry, reduces the habitat for fly larval development.
The compactness of manure will affect the amount of fly breeding. In the center of cattle feedlot pens or indoor pens, the trampling and compacting of manure (and bedding if present) will render the habitat poorly suited for fly breeding. This occurs if there are high densities of animals in the pens, but the effect is lost with very low densities.
Mechanically compacting piled manure produces the same effect of reducing fly breeding. Therefore, manure and bedding removed from pens and stables and piled for storage should be compacted and covered.
The cultural practice of adding large amounts of water to the manure creates a habitat unsuitable for the breeding of house flies and related muscoid flies. However, it may create conditions for other species which tolerate or even prefer liquid conditions, such as rat-tailed maggots and soldier flies.
The method of diluting manure with water is used in manure pits in swine houses and in outdoor waste lagoons used for dairy cattle, swine and poultry, in conjunction with flushing systems for manure removal in the housing.
The Major Pest
The common house fly, Musca domestica, is the major pest species associated with confined livestock production.
Integrated fly control means using a two-pronged attack on flies: larvicides to prevent fly larvae developing into adults, and adulticides to kill adult flies.