Economic Impact - Parasitic Diseases
Flies are frequent carriers of helminthes.
Several nematodes, like Parafilaria bovicola, Thelazia spp. and Heterotylenchus autumnalis are found in various fly species and especially in the face fly (Bech-Nielsen, 1982, Chirico, 1994, Geden, 1982, O'Hara, 1989).
Thelaziosis, an eyeworm infection affecting cattle, sheep, horses and goats, is mainly transmitted by the face fly Musca autumnalis (Greenberg, 1973, Lancaster, 1986, O'Hara, 1991, Stork, 1979).
Several fly species have also been found carrying eggs of Ascaris, Trichuris and Ancylostoma and may therefore play a role in the transmission of these helminthes (Dipeolu, 1982, Monzon, 1991, Oyerinde, 1976, Umeche, 1989).
The house fly is a vector of cestodosis in poultry (Abrams, 1976). In poultry, coccidiosis can be transmitted by flies as well, although this is not the major way of spreading of the disease (Greenberg, 1973, Milushev, 1978).
The Major Pest
The common house fly, Musca domestica, is the major pest species associated with confined livestock production.
Integrated fly control means using a two-pronged attack on flies: larvicides to prevent fly larvae developing into adults, and adulticides to kill adult flies.